I actually have not used the tone curve very much, though I probably should more.
I would consider it an advanced panel. It’s used for a lot of different things I think, though mainly adding contrast and removing color casts (both locally and globally). It’s extremely powerful and gives you ability to do things that aren’t available elsewhere in Lightroom, but it’s just a matter of understanding how to use it.
I didn’t watch this one all the way through, but it appears to be a good answer to your question about what makes Curves different than what you could do in the Basic panel, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-o-W68Cf-eY